The Fujica GS645 Professional and its sibling GS645S Professional are very much alike, but different enough that the cameras beg for comparison….which interestingly enough, is what this article is all about: a comparison of Fuji’s two most well-known and loved 645 format compact rangefinder cameras.

Both models make 6×4.5-sized images on 120 or 220 film, both were released in the mid-1980s, both share the same black plastic body, exposure-control layout and quirky default portrait-orientation viewfinder – the latter being the result of the film travelling horizontally across the shutter plane.

The cameras were released some 18 months apart and although similar in form and function, they are different enough that I ended up with one of each.

Fuji GS645S & GS645 - Head on
Fuji GS645S & GS645 – Head on

While both cameras also sport the same Copal #00 leaf shutter and a similar rangefinder mechanism, the original GS645 features a “normal” 75mm f/3.4 lens that utilizes a bellows for focusing and allows the lens to fold up inside the camera, whereas the GS645S is outfitted with a rigid, wide-angle 60mm f/4 lens that’s protected by a circular “cow bar” (top left above)

Both cameras have superb optics, even by 2018 standards. The images they’re capable of creating are full of contrast and corner-to-corner sharp across their respective aperture ranges. Both lenses also boast enough character that they can produce stylistic-looking photographs, as well, if that’s your intent.

Here’s what I cover in this article:




Introductions: the Fuji GS645 and GS645S

Both cameras bodies are made of 1980s plastic typical of the era, but their innards are metal. The GS645 and GS645S advertise themselves as “Professional” cameras and their build quality does seem solid enough, with a few exceptions.

Fujifilm is said to have designed its GS series with the travel industry and documentary photographer in mind.

The cameras are fully mechanical, meaning no batteries are required to make exposures. To run the light meter, however, you’ll need a pair of easy-to-find 1.5v LR44 (or equivalent silver oxide SR44) batteries. The checkered handgrip pattern on both cameras reminds me of the texture on the velour seats in my family’s old Volvo 240 from the same time period. The cameras are pretty boxy, too.

Both models yield 15 frames per roll of 120 film. If you can find 220 film today, the GS series can shoot that too, doubling output to 30 frames. Because the GS645 and GS645S are relatively lightweight and compact in size for medium-format shooters, they’re both well suited for street photography.



My experience with these cameras

Before I start comparing results from these cameras, I need to make the following distinction. There are two basic types of photographers: those who want a camera that gets out of the way; and those who want a camera to be part of the experience.

I belong to the latter camp. I want a film camera to be the experience. That desire is what led me to the Fujica GS645 and GS645S.

Despite being close in age to these cameras, I learned film photography more than 30 years after they hit the market. Today, they might be considered obsolete by mainstream digital photography standards, but to my eye, that’s what makes them so attractive to shoot in 2018, particularly the original GS645.

What could be more obsolete than glueing some folded paper to a bit of glass and calling that job done? Yet, it was the GS645’s bellows that drew me to this retro-inspired camera in the first place.

I love old stuff. And the GS645’s design was old when it was brand new, having taken its design cues from cameras that were popular during the prewar era. To be honest, the Fujica GS645 had me at bellows. In fact, I’d probably still play with the camera even if its image quality were junk. But thankfully, its image quality more than lives up to its “Professional” claims.

After deciding I needed to have GS645, I indulged in a lot of camera porn until my wife had enough and surprised me with a GS645 for my 40th birthday. For the next several weeks, I shot the heck out of that camera. So much so that I somehow snapped the pulley cable that cocks the camera’s shutter. The cost of repair was more than what we paid for the used thing, but thankfully we were able to get a refund.

A few months later, I was able to find a replacement GS645 which, apart from developing several pinholes and tears in its bellows – a common problem that I managed to fix myself with a $5 tube of black silicone from an auto-parts shop – has otherwise been trouble-free, though it’s admittedly uglier now, due to my budget repair.

Function over fashion, right?

While I initially fancied this model because of its retro look, the truth is, I’ve fallen in love with it because of its optics and the results they produce. Before my introduction to the GS645, I lamented the fact that I was pretty rotten at making landscape street photos. Ironically, it’s been a camera with a default portrait-orientation viewfinder that has given me some much-needed practice in the genre.



Handling the GS645

As good as the camera is, the GS645 has some issues.

The bellows, though sexy, are inherently fragile. They’re just origami after all. Ideally, you’d keep the lens collapsed for protection, but that doesn’t really work for street photography, which requires quick reactions. So, to avoid knocking into the bellows when the camera is open and ready to fire, it’s a good idea to keep your left hand gripped around the lens barrel.

As I found out, the shutter pulley cable is prone to snapping. While the camera’s superb Fujinon 75mm lens is, well, superb, its focus must be set to infinity, and the shutter must be cocked, in order to collapse the lens inside the camera. Failing to do causes catastrophic damage.

Fortunately, though, there’s a warning label for English-readers on the back of the camera that reminds you how to safely perform the operation.

Exposure on the GS645 is set manually – there are no fancy electronic priority shooting modes. Shutter speed and aperture are adjusted via a set of narrow rings that are integrated into the lens barrel and are spaced only a few millimetres away from the focus ring. If you have good muscle memory, the learning curve isn’t too steep, but it certainly takes some practice. The viewfinder lacks exposure-setting data, so any time you have to make changes, you must lower the camera from your eye.

The shutter can fire as fast as 1/500th of a second and as slow as 1 second. There’s also a timer setting. The film advance lever re-cocks the shutter. The lens is engraved with a DoF scale for those who like to zone focus, but keep your expectations low for apertures wider than f/8. The focus tab is easy enough to find, compared to the tiny helper nobs on the shutter and aperture rings, which are pretty subtle.



Why use a camera with “less-than-optimal” exposure controls?

Life is supposed to be a challenge, right? Why should film photography in the 21st century be any different? The fun is in the challenge. If you disagree, then perhaps you ought to shoot digital.

Warts aside, the GS645 really is a fun camera to shoot. Its Copal #00 leaf shutter should be quiet, in principle, but in practice, the spring-slapping-plastic action of the mechanism produces an amusing thwap!

The viewfinder is big, bright and uncluttered. Parallax correction is built in and its brightlines help keep horizons level while framing. The rangefinder patch is small but still usable.

It takes two hands to load a new roll of film, but the procedure is pretty straightforward:

  • Unlatch the film door.
  • Press the two red buttons at the bottom of the film transport to release the film spool nobs.
  • Move the take-up spool to the right position and lock it into place by pressing the corresponding spool-nob button on the camera’s base plate
  • Do the same with the new roll of film on the left side.
  • Pull the paper lead across the shutter plane, feeding its tab into the empty spool’s slot.
  • Advance the film lever a few times until the film’s start arrow lines up with the camera’s arrow, located at the top-center of the film transport groove.
  • Close the back, keep winding until the film counter is set to Frame 1, and it’s ready to go.

If you have 220 film, simply side the pressure plate on the inside of the film door from 120 to 220, and move the film-counter switch, located to the right of the viewfinder, to the same setting.

The film-advance action on my GS645 has become creaky over time, but that’s my fault for shooting the camera so often in wet, sticky conditions. That being said, the GS645 never fails to make negatives with frames that are perfectly evenly spaced apart. Though the camera has no weather sealing that I’m aware of, its build quality is such that even after getting splashed about in the rain, it dries out fine in front of a fan and is ready to go again the next day.

The camera’s photocell light meter is surprisingly dependable, too, apart from scenes with strong backlighting. Its ISO range is modest, 25 to 1600, but adequate, and offers 1/3-stop increments. Half-depressing the shutter button activates the meter. A red LED light appears in the viewfinder window, offering advice by illuminating either a “+”, “-“ or “o” in the middle for the correct exposure.

Having the ability to add a soft-shutter release to the camera’s threaded shutter button (as I have above) helps to avoid accidentally tripping the shutter while metering. The shutter release also has a lock switch.

The GS645’s strap lugs are positioned on the right side of the camera body, which is ideal for my preference of winding the strap around my wrist, rather than around my neck while shooting. The placement of the lugs also helps prevent the strap from getting snagged on the lens and damaging those beautiful bellows.



Going wide with the GS645S

As much as I enjoy the GS645, I prefer a wide-angle lens for street photography and street portraiture. Thankfully, the GS645S offers just that, plus some additional refinements.

Rather than bellows, the GS645S sports a rigid lens. It, too, must have been fragile because Fuji’s engineers decided they needed to protect the lens barrel with a cow bar – so named for the bumper guards that ranchers affix to their pick-up trucks. Because the S-model’s lens no longer collapses, you’re able to keep filters and/or a hood attached at all times, if you like.

Optically, the GS645S’ 60mm lens performs just as well as the original model’s 75mm lens. The S model’s lens is equivalent to a 35mm focal length in 135 film terms and the Orthometar design of the 60mm helps reduce distortion and softness in the corners. Because of its wider-angle glass, the S-model features a viewfinder with 0.5x magnification, compared to 0.63x in the original GS645.

The GS645S’ exposure controls are much improved over the GS645. The shutter speed and aperture rings are in the same position as before, but they’ve been fitted with larger tabs, which are much easier – and faster – to find and adjust. Whereas the original GS645 has a stepless aperture ring, the GS645S’ aperture ring offers full-stop clicks. Both cameras have f-stop numbers engraved on the lens barrel and stop down to f/22. The little ISO dial that’s also built into the lens barrel is easier to adjust on the S-model, thanks to a redesigned tab.

In short, these minor tweaks add up to a big difference in terms of speed of use out in the streets.

Despite the usability speed boost, however, my particular GS645S suffers from a slow rangefinder, which apparently is a common ailment with this model. From infinity to about 3 meters, the focus is snappy, but with anything closer, there’s a 2-second delay until the rangefinder catches up.

Looking online, the slow rangefinder problem can be an easy fix, if you’re brave enough to remove the top plate and hit the arm that interlocks the rangefinder/focus ring with a drop of lighter fluid in order to free up the movement. I hope to find the courage soon to attempt the repair myself. In the meantime, I’m learning to be patient while also practising my zone-focusing skills.

Incidentally, Fuji also released a GS645W model, outfitted with an even wider 45mm f/5.6 lens, but the camera lacks a coupled rangefinder. I have come to appreciate zone focusing through the GS-series cameras, but not enough to acquire the W-model…yet.



Comparing the GS645 and GS645S

When EM expressed interest in having a review on both the GS645 and GS645S, he suggested that I try to shoot them side-by-side for comparison. It sounded like a fun challenge, so that’s what I did.

Normally, I’m a one-camera-per-outing-type of photographer. My brain gets easily confused when there are too many choices. Nevertheless, I schlepped both the GS645 and GS645S together for a couple of street sessions. For this review, I hit a 1-mile stretch of Downtown Houston, a bus exchange near my home and an urban neighborhood cemetery in search of sample shots.

As is typical during Houston summers, the sun was harsh and the rains swept through as I worked. During the process, I learned that you can operate either the GS645 or GS645S one-handed, if necessary, which then frees up your other hand to hold an umbrella.

Whenever possible, I tried to grab a couple of frames with one camera, then switched to the other, photographing a similar scene, from a similar position, with similar settings. This worked okay when scenes were static, but proved to be more challenging when things were fluid, as they often are in street photography.

In a couple of instances, I photographed a scene with one camera, then returned another day and photographed the scene with the other camera.

To eliminate as many variables as possible, I used the same film – Kodak Tri-X 400 – in both cameras, exposed every roll at box speed and processed all the film myself at home with Ilford Ilfotec DD-X (1:4) developer. I then scanned my negatives with an Epson V600.

The following three sections break out as follows:

  • Photos taken with the GS645 Professional
  • Photos taken with the GS645S Professional
  • Comparative photos taken with both the GS645 Professional and GS645S Professional

I’ll leave it up to readers of this review to judge which camera helps make better photographs. From a pure user’s perspective, I’m torn.

As with the images above, you can click on any thumbnail to have it expand to full screen.



Photos taken with the GS645 Professional



Photos taken with the GS645S Professional



Comparing photos taken with both the GS645 Professional and GS645S Professional

10 scenes, all shot with both cameras follow. The first images in each gallery were taken using the GS645, followed by a comparative image taken on the GS645S, followed by a side-by-side comparison of both.












A few final thoughts

I prefer the S-model’s shorter focal length and friendlier controls, but I can’t help but love the original model’s design. Ah, those bellows. I also prefer the slightly faster lens on the original GS645.

When these cameras were new, they retailed for about $400 in the US. More than 30 years later, you could easily spend upwards of $500 for a used GS645 or GS645S in solid condition.

After shooting these two cameras side-by-side, I’ve come to the conclusion that Fuji should have made one more version of this camera, taking the best features from the previous iterations. This proposed model would revive the use of bellows, but would utilize the S-model’s 60mm lens and exposure controls. It’d also have a top shutter speed 1/1000th of a second and an expanded ISO range. This would be the ultimate Fujica GS645-series camera for street photography, in my opinion.

In the absence of such a camera, however, we’re left with the GS645 and GS645S. I’m hesitant to recommend either of these two models to other photographers, but that’s purely out of selfish reasons.

You see, there are only so many working GS645-series cameras available today and I’d like to snatch them all up for myself. Both cameras offer the experience and are capable of producing the photographs, that I want out of a film camera for street photography and street portraiture.

Once you’ve shot 120 film, it’s hard to go back to 135. After using the GS645 and GS645S, I’ve found it difficult to enjoy making photographs with any other film camera within reach.

~ Michael



Specifications: Fuji GS645 & GS645S


ManufacturerFuji Photo Film Co., Ltd (Japan)Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd (Japan)
Camera nameFujica GS645 ProfessionalFujica GS645S Professional
Camera type6x4.5 format folding rangefinder camera6x4.5 format rangefinder camera
Format6x4.5cm (portrait)

120/220 rollfilm
6x4.5cm (portrait)

120/220 rollfilm
Manufacture datesMarch 1983October 1984
Viewfinder92% coverage at 1m
90% coverage at infinity
0.63x magnification
3x LED exposure indicator
91% coverage at 1m
90% coverage at infinity
0.5x magnification

3x LED exposure indicator
Rangefinder39.5mm baseline (24.9mm effective)40mm baseline (20mm effective baseline)
ShutterCopal #00 shutter

T, 1-1/500 sec + timer
Copal #00 shutter

T, 1-1/500 sec + timer
LensEBC Fujion S 75mm f/3.4 lens (5 elements in 4 groups) - 1m closest focusEBC Fujion W 60mm f/4 Orthometar-type lens (7 elements in 5 groups) - 1m closest focus
AccessoriesSoft case
Shoulder strap
Lens hood
Soft case
Shoulder strap
Lens hood
GS-grip (flash accessory)
MeteringEV 3.5 - 18
ASA 25 - 1600
EV 4 - 18
ASA 25 - 1600
Power2x LR44 / SR44 (1.5v)2x LR44 / SR44 (1.5v)
Weight820g (without batteries)766g (without batteries)
147mm x 114mm x 56mm (WxHxD)

147mm x 114mm x 122mm (WxHxD)
147mm x 114mm x 90mm (WxHxD)



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About the author

Avatar - Michael C Duke

Michael C. Duke

Michael C. Duke is a journalist and street photographer based in Houston, Texas. He works in both digital and analog film formats, and has taught photography workshops for children and adults. Whether teaching, traveling on assignment or documenting his own...

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  1. I absolutely love the idea that a medium format can be so portable. I think with the right maintenance, it should be worth the investment if it allows more shooting! Thank you for the wonderfully detailed side by side review with photo examples. I really like the sharpness of the S but the length of the original is quite nice. I think I might just pick one up.

  2. Had first GS645; had bellows replaced by Fuji USA. It was stolen. Got 2nd GS645; had bellows replaced by Camera Wiz. Still have it. The lens is breathtaking for sharpness, and I never noticed falloff as a practical matter. <y office was next to a camera store for many years, where I would hang out. I handled at least a dozen GS645S cameras over 10 years. More than half of them had damaged lens mounts. The "cowbar" protects the lens because the mount is plastic and has become brittle over time. The procedure is to retract the lens to infinity after use to pull it behild the bar for its protection. There, it is safe if you only mount the lens cap. Add a filter and it protrudes. Even a small hit on the front of the lens mount will probably break the threads in the focus ring(s). NO parts; no repairs. Also have the GS645W with its 45mm lens; very much a high end box camera with its zone focusing, but it works given the depth of field.

  3. Hi,

    I live in Houston also and work at UH. I use that bus stop regularly. These are really great photos. I found this article because I am also looking at the GS645. Much as I love my Fuji cameras, I am going back to shooting film for awhile. I shot a GA645 for several years and have always regretted selling that camera. It actually was more rugged than it appeared to be. I stopped shooting film when I moved to Houston because I did not have access to a darkroom. Prior to moving here I worked at a community college in Temple. We had an amazing darkroom there. It was set up by the head of the Imaging Department at Scott and White Hospital. It was easily as good as the darkroom at UH. Initially, I was hesitant about developing the film at home because of the need for a scanner. However I think I will be able to afford one later this year. If you have any suggestions on that I would appreciate it. I was thinking about the Espon V850. Great article!! Steve Boykin

  4. I agree, these cameras are great for street photography but the shutter is VERY noisy. Also the rangefinder is prone to freeze (what you call “slow” rangefinder). Last the rangefinder patch is pretty small and sometimes difficult to see. On the plus side, they are very light for MF cameras, easy to load and unload and they have a meter (not so frequent with MF cameras).

  5. So I found this doing some digging on old, long-forgotten websites still preserved on Everything about the GS645 is fiddly, with the bellows and all that, but it seems that the lens is quite good, especially from f/5.6-11. The other Fuji 645 rangefinders get top marks from owners for lens quality as well, although this is the only formal test I could find.

    Fuji GS645 Lens Test

    GS645 lpmm lpmm contrast contrast
    f/stops center edge center edge
    3.5 50 40 69 34
    4 50 40 80 40
    5.6 64 45 90 62
    8 71 50 98 66
    11 64 50 90 84
    16 56 50 89 70
    22 56 50 80 70

    Source: Modern Photography, June 1984, p. 86

    “The above table may be of some interest to those looking at the GS645 series Fuji rangefinder (see article for more information). The 75mm f/3.5 lens has less than 1% pin cushion distortion, but loses up to 1.6 stops (ouch!) in corners to light falloff. The lens is evidently diffraction limited by f/8, with a stunningly high (98%) center contrast rating! Sharpness improved from wide open by stopping down to f/5.6, after which the lens performance was rated as excellent in center. It received all excellent ratings in the edge performance. After seeing this, you can understand why so many users have been happy!”

  6. Very good and extensive review! Interesting to see the two side by side as well. I tend to like the longer focal length shots more, but that’s just personal preference.
    I actually owned a GS645 for a short while but had to return it due to the same bellows and shutter problems. However short it was, I absolutely fell in love with it during that period. Great feel and quality; if only it was a little more reliable…

  7. I think I ‘need’ to have the GS645 for the ‘romance’ of a folding bellows camera. I usually use my GA645Zi for street photography. Thank you for the review, but I feel another “Schrodinger’s Kit” about to appear. Don’t tell my husband!