Just a few months ago, I was happily shooting digital. But my work was lacking something. Soul, perhaps. And I was getting tired of photography.
I tried to do something different to avoid this: first shooting black and white (never shot it before, or at least not thinking in black and white from the beginning but rather converting color photos), and then I started experimenting with different aspect ratios. And I loved the square format.
Composing a square photo isn’t as easy as it might sound or look, and I wasn’t good at it. I loved that challenge though.
These two changes were enough to make me feel very excited about photography again. But my biggest step was yet to come.
You see, my Sony digital camera didn’t support square format natively. Yes, you have a grid that helps a bit, but the stored photo (both RAW and JPEG) was your traditional 3 by 2. Even post-processing the photo would mean you are “wasting” a third of your sensor (16MP 1×1 instead of the 24MP 3×2).
I began what turned out to be a very quick search: there’s nothing in the digital world using a square sensor that I could afford.
Film had to be it, then. But I didn’t love the options:
TLRs: I already had one at home (Rolleiflex) that I didn’t enjoy using. Not being able to use different lenses, a not very bright finder, a very desatisfying shutter…
Holga, Polaroid… nah.
Hasselblad: this one seemed to be my dream camera, but it was way too expensive. This was going to be my first film camera for “serious” use, I wasn’t sure if it was going to work out.
But then, I learned about this Japanese brand that made some medium format cameras similar to the Hasselblads, and they had a few 6×6 cameras that’d fit my budget!
Enter the Bronica SQ-Ai: my favorite camera, ever.


A quick tour of the Bronica SQ-Ai

The front of the camera is very simple, on the bottom right (when you are holding it) is the shutter. You can (and should) lock it when the camera isn’t being used. Not because it could fire (it won’t if you have the dark slide in), but it will drain the battery if for some reason it gets pressed in a backpack or somewhere like that.

Bronica SQ-Ai - Body (front) 02
Bronica SQ-Ai – Body (front) 02

Moving to the left side of the camera, you have the switch to take the lens off (top left). Then the shutter speed dial, a very – for some reason – satisfying one to use. Speeds go from BULB to 1/500th of a second in one-stop increments: 1/500, 1/250, 1/125, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 16s, BULB.
Bronica SQ-Ai - Kit (left)
Bronica SQ-Ai – Kit (left)

Also present on this side, cable release socket and PC flash sync that I haven’t used.
And finally, on the bottom right of the picture above, a button that releases the film back.
Moving onto the right side, we find another switch (top right), in this case to take the finder off.
Bronica SQ-Ai - Kit (right)
Bronica SQ-Ai – Kit (right)

We see another two switches, one for multiple exposures and another one to lock the mirror up – single or continuous. I always use this for low shutter speed shots, or when taking long exposures.
I’m not sure if this is a “feature” of the camera or mine is defective, but if the shutter is not cocked and you flip the mirror up, it won’t let you take a picture and you’ll lose a frame when you wind the film.
To do so, finally, we have the wind-on lever.
On the bottom, we have the tripod socket, the battery compartment and some connections to use with a speed grip accessory. The camera takes LR-44 batteries, and fortunately I can’t tell you how long they last because I’ve run 100+ rolls through this camera over the last 6 months and it’s still running with the batteries it came with!
As you might imagine, the finder takes all the space on the top of the camera.
Bronica SQ-Ai - Waist Level Finder view
Bronica SQ-Ai – Waist Level Finder view

No matter which finder you are using, the camera has the following features:

  • A red light will show up on the top of the finder if you are pressing the shutter half way but you can’t take a picture for some reason (be it: dark slide is in, you haven’t cocked the shutter, the lens is not properly attached…).
  • That same red light will go off when you do take one and turn itself off when it’s done. This is useful for low shutter speed photos, it tells you to stay still until it’s turned off.
  • A little mark on the right side tells you the multiple exposure setting is on and of course, looking down at the top of the camera you’ll find the shutter speed selector window.

Before I move on to the lenses, here are a few more shots of the camera:


Bronica SQ-Ai lens system

Bronica SQ-Ai - Lenses - 50mm f/3.5, 90mm f/2.8, 250mm f/5.6
Bronica SQ-Ai – Lenses – 50mm f/3.5, 90mm f/2.8, 250mm f/5.6

The Bronica lenses I have are all Zenzanon PS, and are supposed to have slightly better optics and coating than their predecessors, the Zenzanon S. Both generations of lenses are compatible with the SQ-Ai.
The lenses have leaf shutter, a depth of field preview switch, and the ability to shoot in T (Time) Mode.
The Bronica SQ-Ai added a BULB mode, but this is only recommended for exposures that don’t go over a minute, since it needs power to function and that will eat your batteries really quick. The solution is to use the T-mode in the lenses. Once enabled it will keep the shutter open for as long as you want, until you put it back to “A-mode” (without wasting battery).
So despite using batteries to move the mirror, the Bronica SQ-Ai is able to take really long exposure without using them. I took a 3-hour long exposure this way.
Also worth mentioning; these lenses have electronic connections so they can send information to the camera about the aperture being used. This lets you use metered finders.
I own the following Zenzanon PS lenses: 50mm f/3.5, 80mm f/2.8, 150mm f/4 and 250mm f/5.6…but there are quite a few more available:

  • Fisheye 35mm f/3.5
  • 40mm f/4
  • 50mm f/3.5
  • 65mm f/4
  • 80mm f/2.8
  • 110mm f/4.5
  • 135mm f/4
  • 150mm f/4
  • 180mm f/4.5
  • 200mm f/4.5
  • 250mm f/5.6
  • 500mm f/8

You can also add two teleconverters to your kit: 1.4x and 2x. I own the latter and to be honest, I don’t like it. The loss of sharpness is too much. But it might be an option to use in conjunction with the 250mm instead of buying and carrying the ultra expensive 500mm.
I believe the most common lenses to have are the ones I have: 50mm, 80mm and 150mm. They give you a focal length range of, more or less, 28mm to 85mm in 35mm equivalent.
I just wish the filter thread size of the 50mm lens was 67mm like the other three I own. Unfortunately, I have to carry a step-up ring to use filters.

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Finders and other accessories

Bronica SQ-Ai - Finders
Bronica SQ-Ai – Finders

The camera came with a prism finder, but I knew I wanted a waist level finder. It not only makes the camera smaller and lighter, but in my opinion it’s just a better experience overall. But if you don’t want to struggle with a reversed image, you can use the prism finder.
More finders are available for this camera, from “chimney” finders to metered finders.

There are plenty of other accessories, from extension tubes to bellows that allow some basic movements that otherwise would be reserved for large format cameras.

Film backs

There are different types of film backs, from 6×4.5 to Polaroid backs, and also for 220 and 35mm films.
I have two regular 120 film backs, they are the newest version (the ISO selector is on the back). These film backs also have electronic connections so they can inform the camera about the speed being used, in case you are using a metered finder.

The film backs have their own wind-on lever and of course, the shot counter and the dark slide.
Another thing to mention: the dark slide can only be inserted in one direction, and if you put it back the wrong way, it can ruin your film.

Bronica SQ-Ai in use

I had some problems when shooting this camera for the first time. There are many elements you have to consider to even get a shot.
Batteries have to be in good health, of course. The lens has to be properly attached (this made me waste a couple frames the first times). The shutter has to be cocked. The shutter button has to be unlocked. The dark slide has to be off the film back.
Then, you can shoot!
Focusing is pretty straightforward using the split screen, and the finder is very bright. Using the preview switch on the lens and the magnifier on the waist level finder, you shouldn’t have problems shooting with regular lenses.

Bronica SQ-Ai pack - closed
Bronica SQ-Ai pack – closed

As a landscape photographer, the weight of your camera system is really important. And unfortunately, the Bronica SQ-Ai is not a light system. Add to that the accessories you’ll need (tripod, filters…) and we are talking trouble for your back. I talk from experience.
This is a very wild estimation but I’d say half of my shots are taken from a place easily accessible, either by car or after a short walk. In those cases, I’ll bring everything with me.
The other half of the shots are more challenging. For easy to moderate hikes, I’ll bring 2 lenses, 3 at most. The big, heavy 250mm doesn’t get to come with me on these trips.
If the hike is hard (or long), then I either bring just one lens plus tripod (and nothing else!) or I simply leave the Bronica behind. I’ve been experimenting with other cameras trying to find a decent “plan B” for these situations, and I’ve settle on a Rolleiflex. For now.
Bronica SQ-Ai pack - open
Bronica SQ-Ai pack – open

I bring my tripod almost every time, unless it’s a bright day and I’m not planning on taking long exposures. I usually shoot at sunrise and sunset and those low light situations really need a tripod.
I’ve spent the last 6 months capturing the Northwest and Southwest of the US on film using this “little” camera, and I couldn’t be happier with it.
Granted, it’s not for everyone. I’ve had cameras that are arguably better for a landscape photographer, but this is the one that inspires me the most and the one that pushes me out all the time.
It’s also a great way to get started with medium format, since it’s pretty easy to use if you have used a (D)SLR before.

Sample photos

At the time of writing it has been 6 months since I got the Bronica SQ-Ai. I’ve shot 100+ rolls of film through it and I love this camera even more with each day that passes.
As I said at the beginning of the article, the square format is really important to me. It’s something really hard to explain, but it feels right. It fits my style; what I want to convey with my photos. And this camera not only gives me that, but it helps me define my photography.
The main body of my work is landscapes. I try not to replicate an exact copy of what I see but rather an interpretation. For that I use color filters and long exposures. Being able to shoot exposures for as long as I want to without draining battery is really a key advantage of this camera. Most of them my exposures are under 20 minutes, but others (like the long exposure of the full moon over Mt St Helens, which is second to last in the gallery below) are exposures of 4+ hours.
I use a variety of film stocks, but my favorite is ILFORD HP5 PLUS pushed to EI 800. I also use different developers and fixers depending on where I am and their availability. I scan them using an Epson Perfection v600 scanner. I do post-process my photos in Lightroom, changing the contrast and burning / dodging.
These sample shots were taken in the Northwest of the United States, where I lived for the last 4 years and where I fell in love with photography. You can see shots from all over Oregon and Washington: the coast, Mt Hood, Mt St Helens, Mt Rainier, Columbia River Gorge, Smith Rock, Astoria, Three Sisters Wilderness…



This camera made me fall in love with photography all over again, and I couldn’t be happier using it. It’s not the easiest camera to shoot, or the lightest. But somehow, it’s become my favorite companion when I’m out there shooting. It doesn’t feel like a tool I have to use to capture an image, but it’s a big part of the work I’ve been doing lately.
It inspires and motivates me like no other camera has done.


  • This camera is ideal for someone who wants to shoot a Hasselblad but can’t justify the cost: I got the whole system for less than $1k.
  • Modularity: lenses, film backs, finders, grips… almost feels like a Lego.
  • Lenses are very, very sharp.
  • You can use flash, and it will sync at any speed.
  • It supports metered finders, in case you don’t want to use or carry an external light meter.
  • The finder is extremely bright.
  • The noise of the shutter is very satisfying.
  • It’s heavy, but not that heavy.



  • If this is your first medium format camera, it might take you a while to get used to it.
  • Lenses are not the fastest.
  • Probably not as reliable as a Hasselblad.
  • While you are shooting, there’s no place in the camera to attach the dark slide. I put in my pocket, but I’m afraid I’ll lose it one of these days.
  • It’s very loud, not a camera to shoot squirrels from up close.
  • It’s a heavy camera.

And while this is very personal opinion, I’d keep the Bronica SQ-Ai in mind if you want to shoot medium format and you like to compose in square.
~ Adrian Vila

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About the author

Adrian Vila

My name is Adrian and I'm a Spanish-American photographer currently based in Portland, OR. I was born in the early 80s, but didn't pick up a camera until only a few years ago. It was love at first sight though.

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  1. Back in the day the Zenza Bronica SQ models or ETR models were the go to cameras for wedding photographers and event photographers, because of the negative size and reliability. I own both an ETR-Si and an SQ-Ai and neither have ever let me down

  2. Really enjoyed this article, especially the fine images! I have an SQ-A that I bought new and used for over nine years for wedding and portrait photography up through 1999. For weddings, I used the eye-level finder (non-metered) and winder grip (not the motorized one, the lever one), with 65mm (approx. 35mm focal equiv. in 35mm format), 80mm (approx. 50mm focal equiv.) and 150mm (90mm equiv?). In nearly 50 weddings, numerous Corporate holiday parties and family portraits, it was reliable as a stone, never once missing a beat. It was a pleasure to operate and image quality was excellent! Kodak Portra 160NC and VC and Fujifilm 400H were the emulsions of choice. I’m glad I kept it as I’m enjoying rediscovering film! Thanks again for the inspiration!

  3. I’ve had an SQ-A for well over ten years, it replaced a Mamiya 645 and before that a Rollei and a Hasselblad. Great camera! I use it mainly for architecture with the 50mm PS lens, which is very good indeed. Strangely, this is more compact than the 65mm PS which is also optically outstanding. I usually use the side grip, it’s a great accessory that makes it easier to hand hold the camera. I prefer the camera to Hasselblad C range because of the electronically timed shutter. Without the electronics, leaf shutters need regular servicing which is an expensive hassle I’d rather avoid. All in all I find the SQ-A a wonderful camera and excellent value.

  4. I used one of these when I was a wedding photographer. I changed over to digital in 2004 but, prior to then, I carried two SQAi cameras, two 80mm lenses and 1 150mm lens. I shot many hundreds of weddings, and portraits, with this kit and always found it to be reliable and capable of producing sharp, well exposed images. I generally used a hand held meter (Sekonic) and measured the light using the incident mode. Occasionally I used the built in meter but not on important jobs (the meter never failed me once, it was just my personal paranoia!). Had Bronica bitten the bullet and produced a digital version, I would have bought one in a heartbeat but, sadly it was not to be and brought about the downfall of a great camera manufacturer.

  5. Great photos.
    I’ve got an Ai I bought last year – had battery problems at first (turns out they’re known for it) but a service has sorted it. It has a PS/B 80mm which lacks the ability to do long exposure without battery so considering swapping it.
    Question if I may – what Lowepro bag is it in your pics? I need to get a back pack to carry the SQ Ai with 80mm, plus a 50mm and a 150mm, a couple of backs, filters and film. With my tripod on the back. Yours looks about right – I want something small and light, and I’m not planning 20m hikes!
    Appreciate any advice. Thanks.

  6. “Probably not as reliable as a Hasselblad.”
    That’s because people CLA their Hassy every other click it seems. I find the Bronica more reliable because you don’t have to be super careful with the back and body dots when pairing. I’ve never heard of a Bronica lock up. Hassys.. if you don’t sync the dots right, bam.

  7. A nice review, and very nice sample shots! I adore this camera. I have an SQAi with an AE-SQi finder and a motor. The meter is dead on and has a 3°spot mode. For the quality of the build and the optics, I think they are way underpriced. Like-new condition gear is readily available at bargain prices. I can’t recommend it enough.

  8. I own the SQ-Ai and the SQ-A, and I echo everything good Adrian says about the Bronica 6 x 6 system. I would add but one comment. I found the battery configuration on the SQ-Ai fussy and life of the batteries to be less than optimal. I checked on the difference between the that model and the SQ-A, and the “improvements” in the SQ-Ai to be minimal and unimportant to me. I bought and SQ-A body and found it solves both of the problems I found with the battery of the SQ-Ai. For that reason, I consider the SQ-A the superior choice.

    1. Agreed, I did the same. No real advantage to the Ai other than B setting and you can do it on the lens with the A.

  9. Bronica SQ and SQ-A were my intro to MF, too. It’s a solid system capable of beautiful results. Seiko shutters give you confidence the timing will be spot on. MF game is just…. so out there, big and honking… and every “CLANG!” of the shutter pushes you to become a better photographer. The camera does absolutely zero… and it is all up to you. On top of that, the big, screaming negatives show every wart. Either you get better as a photographer, or you run back where you can hide. But as you do, those negatives start to just lure you in. Someone told me, “MF is the gateway drug….” and if that’s true, then Bronica might be the Nissan 280Z…. that gives you the “(cool) look” without the “truck” of a really expensive machine. Nice shots!

  10. Adrian,
    For the second camera backup try a Kowa 6, I have mine for about 40 years and am very satisfied with it. Yes it is a 6 X 6 CM or 2.25 X 2.25.
    It is very inexpensive, probably way under a one thousand dollars. I paid 250 dollars for it in 1975 I got the 85mm lens which is the normal one and a large suitcase,it was slightly used but you have the shutter built into the lens, like the Hassy. It doesn’t have film backs or a dark slide so there. It is a little heavy but takes great shots. Uses 120 or 220 film. By the way Kowa made or still makes copy lenses for printers. Good luck.
    Jeff Kumor
    East Coast

  11. Great review and I concur with all of it – I use an SQ-A and love it. I’ve used PS lenses in the past (on a borrowed Sq-a) but currently have the 50, 80 and 150mm P lenses. To be honest I can’t tell the difference other than the P lenses look older. Over time the shutter mechanism may be more reliable given it is slightly newer technology but my Ps are still going strong. I actually have the ETRSi as well and personally think Bronicas are very underrated cameras even when compared to Hassy’s. Cost is lower, they’re less fiddly when loading film but build quality of the cameras and quality of results are very similar.